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发表于2006-11-26 02:38 楼主
Apache服务器配置全攻略(六)
通常连接时,服务器仅仅可以得到客户机的IP地址,如果要想获得客户机的   主机名,以进行日志记录和提供给 CGI程序使用,就需要使用这个HostnameLookups 选项,将其设置为On打开DNS反查功能。但是这将使服务器对每次客户请求都进行DNS查询,增加了系统开销,使得反应变慢,因此缺省设置为使用Off关闭此选项。关闭选项之后,服务器就不会获得客户机的主机名,而只能使用IP地址来记录客户。 ErrorLog /var/log/httpd-error.log LogLevel warn LogFormat "%h %l %u %t "%r" %>s %b "%{Referer}i" "%{User-Agent} "" combined LogFormat "%h %l %u %t "%r" %>s %b" common LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent #CustomLog /var/log/httpd-Access.log common #CustomLog /var/log/httpd-referer.log referer #CustomLog /var/log/httpd-agent.log agent CustomLog /var/log/httpd-access.log combined 这里定义了系统日志的形式,对于服务器错误记录, 由ErrorLog、 LogLevel 来定义不同的错误日志文件及其记录内容。 对于系统的访问日志,缺省使用CustomLog参数定义日志的位置,缺省使用 combined 参数指定将所有的访问日志放在一个文件中,然而也可以将不同种类的访问日志放在不同的日志记录文件中,这是通过在 CustomLog中指定不同的记录类型来完成的。common表示普通的对单页面请求访问记录,referer表示每个页面的引用记录,可以看出一个页面中包含的请求数,agent表示对客户机的类型记录,显然可以将现有的combined 定义的设置行注释掉,并使用common、referer和agent作为CustomLog的参数,来为不同种类的日志分别指定日志记录文件。 显然,LogFormat是用于定义不同类型的日志进行记录时使用的格式, 这里 使用了以%开头的宏定义,以记录不同的内容。 如果这些参数指定的文件使用的是相对路径,那么就是相对于ServerRoot的 路径。 ServerSignature On 一些情况下,例如当客户请求的网页并不存在时,服务器将产生错误文档, 缺省情况下由于打开了 ServerSignature选项,错误文档的最后一行将包含服务器的名字、Apache的版本等信息。有的管理员更倾向于不对外显示这些信息,就 可以将这个参数设置为Off,或者设置为Email,最后一行将替换为对 ServerAdmin 的Email提示。 Alias /icons/ "/www/icons/" Options Indexes MultiViews AllowOverride None Order allow,deny Allow from all Alias参数用于将URL与服务器文件系统中的真实位置进行直接映射,一般的 文档将在DocumentRoot 中进行查询,然而使用Alias定义的路径将直接映射到相 应目录下,而不再到DocumentRoot 下面进行查询。因此Alias可以用来映射一些 公用文件的路径,例如保存了各种常用图标的icons路径。这样使得除了使用符号连接之外,文档根目录(DocumentRoot)外的目录也可以通过使用了Alias映射,提供给浏览器访问。 定义好映射的路径之后,应该需要使用Directory语句设置访问限制。 ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/www/cgi-bin/" AllowOverride None Options None Order allow,deny Allow from all ScriptAlias也是用于URL路径的映射,但与Alias的不同在于,ScriptAlias 是用于映射CGI程序的路径,这个路径下的文件都被定义为CGI程序,通过执行它们来获得结果,而非由服务器直接返回其内容。缺省情况下CGI程序使用cgi-bin目录作为虚拟路径。 # Redirect old-URI new-URL Redirect参数是用来重写URL的,当浏览器访问服务器上的一个已经不存在的资源的时候,服务器返回给浏览器新的URL,告诉浏览器从该URL中获取资源。这主要用于原来存在于服务器上的文档,改变了位置之后,而又希望能使用老URL能访问到,以保持与以前的URL兼容。 IndexOptions FancyIndexing AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/* AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/* AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/* AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/* AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core AddIcon /icons/back.gif .. AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^ AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^ DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif #AddDescription "GZIP compressed document" .gz #AddDescription "tar archive" .tar #AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz ReadmeName README HeaderName HEADER IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t 当一个HTTP请求的URL为一个目录的时候,服务器返回这个目录中的索引文件。但如果一个目录中不存在缺省的索引文件,并且该服务器又许可显示目录文件列表的时候,就会显示出这个目录中的文件列表,为了使得这个文件列表能具有可理解性,而不仅仅是一个简单的列表,就需要前面的这些设置参数。
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